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Egypt Facebook Revolution

Egypt’s Facebook Revolution: Wael Ghonim Thanks The Social Network

Shortly after Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak stepped downfrom power on Friday, activist Wael Ghonim spoke with CNN’s Wolf Blitzer and credited Facebook with the success of the Egyptian people’s uprising.

Ghonim, a marketing manager for Google, played a key role in organizing the January 25 protest by reaching out to Egyptian youths on Facebook. Shortly after that first protest, Ghonim was arrested in Cairo and imprisoned for 12 days.

Since his release, Ghonim has become a symbol for the Egyptian movement, although he has rejected this notion. “I’m not a hero. I was writing on a keyboard on the Internet and I wasn’t exposing my life to danger,” he said in an interview immediately after his release. “The heroes are the one who are in the street.”

On Friday, Ghonim told CNN that Facebook and the Internet were responsible for the uprising in Egypt. From the interview:

I want to meet Mark Zuckerberg one day and thank him I’m talking on behalf of Egypt. This revolution started online. This revolution started on Facebook. This revolution started in June 2010 when hundreds of thousands of Egyptians started collaborating content. We would post a video on Facebook that would be shared by 60,000 people on their walls within a few hours. I’ve always said that if you want to liberate a society just give them the Internet.


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Bio

PandaThe giant panda

Habits

Giant pandas are found mostly in thick bamboo and coniferous forests (evergreens with seed cones) at 8,500 to 11,500 feet in elevation. They are generally solitary animals that spend most of their days feeding. However, they do communicate with each other once in a while through scent markings, calls and occasional meetings.

Unlike other bears, giant pandas do not hibernate. In the winter, they move to lower elevations to keep warm, while traveling to higher elevations in the summer to stay cool. They can be active at any time of the day or night.

Pandas do not have permanent homes but sleep at the bottom of trees under stumps and rock ledges.

 

Diet

Pandas eat bamboo. Since giant pandas have the digestive system of a carnivore, they do not have the ability to digest cellulose (plant matter) efficiently and thus derive little energy and little protein from consumption of bamboo. So, the average giant panda has to eat as much as 20 to 45 lbs (9-20 kg) of bamboo shoots a day. On occasion, giant pandas are also known to eat flowers, vines, tufted grasses, green corn, honey and rodents.

 

Food chain

Giant Pandas are high in the food chain because of two reasons: loss of habitat and specialized diet. I will explain: these bears are found only in a remote and high level area in China near Tibet; they feed on some 30 species of bamboo plants only found in that region. Because of these habits they are amongst the endangered species of animals left on Earth.

 

Climate Change and Other Threats
The most serious threat to the panda is loss of habitat. Already confined to small remote areas in the mountains of China, much of their natural lowland habitat has been destroyed by farmers, development and forest clearing, forcing them further upland and reducing and fragmenting their habitat. This fragmentation of habitat is detrimental to the panda’s ability to find food.
Because they can consume up to 45 pounds of bamboo in a day, it is sometimes necessary for pandas to travel to a new location once the bamboo supply of an area is depleted. However, the fragmentation of their range by humans can make finding new food difficult. Any climate changes that alter the natural range of bamboo species will make these remaining islands of habitat even more precarious.
 
1
Support captive breeding programs in the United States and around the world. With low birth rates and reproduction issues, breeding in captivity is an important aspect of panda survival. Visit zoos that have captive pandas.
2
Donate money or time to an organization dedicated to protecting endangered pandas. Although wild pandas are only found in China, conservation organizations are found around the globe. Choose to donate money online or offer to volunteer if the organization is located close to you.
3
Sponsor or adopt a panda. Zoos and other organizations often support their efforts by having individuals “adopt” or sponsor a particular animal. With sponsorship, you might receive pictures and information about your specific adoptee. This makes a great gift for children or individuals who like pandas.
4
Grow bamboo. Some zoos in the United States accept bamboo donations from individuals. Contact a zoo with a panda near you to see if they have such a program and what the requirements are.
5
Learn about the Chinese government’s efforts to maintain panda habitat and save endangered pandas. Government efforts include turning land back into forest, promoting high yield crops instead of logging and promoting population control.
6
Avoid products that are made from animals who share habitats with pandas. Poachers and hunters of other species threaten pandas through snares, traps and other hunting methods.
7
Buy products from companies that donate money to panda conservation. Many conservation organizations sell panda related materials or provide information about companies that sponsor panda survival.

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The differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells

  1. Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, bound by a double membrane. Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus. The purpose of the nucleus is to sequester the DNA-related functions of the big eukaryotic cell into a smaller chamber, for the purpose of increased efficiency. This function is unnecessary for the prokaryotic cell, because its much smaller size means that all materials within the cell are relatively close together. Of course, prokaryotic cells do have DNA and DNA functions. Biologists describe the central region of the cell as its “nucleoid” (-oid=similar or imitating), because it’s pretty much where the DNA is located. But note that the nucleoid is essentially an imaginary “structure.” There is no physical boundary enclosing the nucleoid.
  2. Eukaryotic DNA is linear; prokaryotic DNA is circular (it has no ends).
  3. Eukaryotic DNA is complexed with proteins called “histones,” and is organized into chromosomes; prokaryotic DNA is “naked,” meaning that it has no histones associated with it, and it is not formed into chromosomes. Though many are sloppy about it, the term “chromosome” does not technically apply to anything in a prokaryotic cell. A eukaryotic cell contains a number of chromosomes; a prokaryotic cell contains only one circular DNA molecule and a varied assortment of much smaller circlets of DNA called “plasmids.” The smaller, simpler prokaryotic cell requires far fewer genes to operate than the eukaryotic cell.
  4. Both cell types have many, many ribosomes, but the ribosomes of the eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex than those of the prokaryotic cell. Ribosomes are made out of a special class of RNA molecules (ribosomal RNA, or rRNA) and a specific collection of different proteins. A eukaryotic ribosome is composed of five kinds of rRNA and about eighty kinds of proteins. Prokaryotic ribosomes are composed of only three kinds of rRNA and about fifty kinds of protein.
  5. The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is filled with a large, complex collection of organelles, many of them enclosed in their own membranes; the prokaryotic cell contains no membrane-bound organelles which are independent of the plasma membrane. This is a very significant difference, and the source of the vast majority of the greater complexity of the eukaryotic cell. There is much more space within a eukaryotic cell than within a prokaryotic cell, and many of these structures, like the nucleus, increase the efficiency of functions by confining them within smaller spaces within the huge cell, or with communication and movement within the cell.
  6. Eukaryotic cells are the largest cells, while Prokaryotic cells are smaller than Eukaryotic cells. A eukartotic cell is about 10 times bigger than a prokaryotic cell.
  7. Eukaryotic cells either have a plasma membrane or a cell wall in addition to the plasma membrane; prokaryotic cells have a plasma membrane in addition to a bacterial cell wall



Prokaryotic cells:

  • Most primitive, earliest form of life
  • Do not have a pre-defined nucleus
  • Chromosomes are dispersed in the cytoplasm
  • Contain no membrane-bound organelles
  • Have circular chromosomes and lack histone proteins
  • Most metabolically diverse
  • Small – typically 0.2-2.0 micrometers in diameter
  • Have a primitive cytosketetal structures or don’t have a cytoskeleton at all
  • Smaller (70S) ribosomes
  • Don’t undergo meiosis but reproduce sexually by the transfer of DNA fragments through conjugation


Eukaryotic cells:

  • More complex, evolved organsims
  • Contain true nuclei in which chromosomes are compacted as chromatin
  • Contain membrane-bound organelles
  • Have linear DNA and contain histone proteins
  • Larger – typically 10-100 micrometers in diameter
  • Have a complex cytosketeton
  • Larger (80S) ribosom
  • Reproduce sexually with the use of meiosis

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